Total Knee Replacement is a surgical procedure in which a damaged knee joint is replaced with an artificial joint made of metal and plastic components. It is typically performed to relieve severe pain and improve mobility in individuals with advanced knee arthritis or joint damage. During the surgery, the damaged bone and cartilage are removed, and the artificial joint is securely fixed in place. Total Knee Replacement can significantly enhance a person’s quality of life, allowing them to engage in activities with reduced pain and increased joint function.
It is commonly performed for individuals with severe knee arthritis or joint damage due to injury.
Knee Replacement Surgery (arthroplasty) is a routine operation that involves resurfacing a
damaged, worn or diseased cartilage of the knee with an artificial surface.
This surgery is actually a knee resurfacing surgery which is commonly referred as knee
replacement surgery but the whole joint is not replaced in this surgery only the damaged part is
Adults of any age can be considered for a knee replacement, an average mostly are carried out
on people between the ages of 60 and 80 years. More people are now receiving this operation
at a younger age. A resurfaced Knee usually lasts over 20 years.
Most total knee replacement operations involve replacing the joint surface at the end of
thigh bone (femur) and the joint surface at the top of your shin bone (tibia).
A total knee replacement may also involve replacing the under-surface of your kneecap (patella)
with a smooth plastic dome. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the natural patella if possible,
but sometimes the decision will need to be made during the operation.If you’ve had a previous operation to remove the patella altogether (patellectomy), this won’t
stop you having a knee replacement, but it may affect the type of replacement part (prosthesis)
your surgeon uses.
The new parts are normally cemented in place. If cement is not used then the surface of the
component facing the bone is textured or coated to encourage bone to grow onto it, forming a natural bond.
Another common technique is to use a mobile plastic bearing which isn’t firmly fixed to the metal parts. This may help to reduce wear on your new joint, though it isn’t has’nt been shown to
provide better long-term results.
A kneecap replacement involves replacing just the under-surface of the kneecap and its groove
(the trochlea) if these are the only parts affected by arthritis
It’s possible to replace just the under-surface of the kneecap and its groove (the trochlea) if
these are the only parts affected by arthritis. This is also called a patellofemoral replacement or
patellofemoral joint arthroplasty. The operation has a higher rate of failure than total knee replacement – which may be caused
by the arthritis progressing to other parts of your knee. Some surgeons advise a total knee replacement as the results are more predictable. Others feel that it’s better to preserve the rest
of the knee joint if it isn’t affected by arthritis.
The operation is only suitable for about 1 in 40 people with osteoarthritis. However, the outcome
of kneecap replacement can be good if the arthritis doesn’t progress and it’s a less major
operation offering speedier recovery times. More research is needed to understand which
people are likely to do well with this operation.
A complex knee replacement may be needed if you’re having a second or third joint
replacement in the same knee, or if your arthritis is very severe.
Some people may need a more complex type of knee replacement. The usual reasons for this
a) Major bone loss due to arthritis or fracture
b) Major deformity of the knee
c) Weakness of the main knee ligaments
knee replacements usually have a longer stem, which allows the component to be more
securely fixed into the bone cavity. The components may also interlock in the centre of the knee
to form a hinge to give greater stability. Extra pieces of metal and/or plastic may be used to
make up for any removed or badly damaged bone
This type of operation may be needed if you’re having a second or third joint replacement in the
same knee, and could be better from the start if you have very severe arthritis.